Staff and students can request personal storage and use of part of that to build and present a web site. Also, part of a Project Storage can be used as a web site. To restrict access to such a site,
.htaccess files can be used.
.htaccess is part of the Apace web server facility. This page only describes some basic
.htaccess functions. A full description can be found at the Apache website.
.htaccess in general
.htaccess file you can change the default behavior of the web server. This is done by placing a text file named
.htaccess in the directory for which you want to change the default behavior.
Settings defined in
.htaccess will influence both the directory in which
.htaccess is placed and its descendants, and will overrule
.htaccess settings made in a parent directory.
.htaccess file is a simple text file, that can be written using text editors such a notepad (Windows), gedit, emacs, vi/vim (Linux/Unix) or textedit (Mac OS X).
Apache options that can be modified through a
For a detailed description of these directives, see the Apache documentation web site.
Setting default page or directory listing
When in a URL only a folder is given, and no page, e.g.: www.students.science.uu.nl/~f051317/, then the web server will search that folder for a default page. See the box on the right for a full list.
The first page that is identified as a default page will be shown by the web server.
Note that file names are case sensitive, so
index.html are different files. If both are present in your folder, the web server will show
Index.html as the default page, since is comes before
index.html in the preferred order.
If no default page is found, the web server will show a list of the directory contents, e.g. www.students.science.uu.nl/~f051317/opendir/.
However, there may be reasons why directory contents should not be generally visible. With
.htaccess, public content views can be disabled. For this, enter the next line into the
An example of such a closed directory is
www.students.science.uu.nl/~f051317/closeddir/; this is an exact copy of the open directory shown before, with the
To explicitly open public content views, enter
If, for any reason, you would like to have a different file (or set of files) acting as the default page, you can use a
DirectoryIndex myownpage.htm anotherpage.html
Please note that this directive will replace the defaults as defined by the web server, so e.g.
index.html will no longer be recognized as a default file. Also, these defaults will act not only on the directory the
.htaccess file is in, but also on its descendants (unless another
.htaccess file overrules it).
Web access based on internet address
It is possible to manage access to your web pages using
.htaccess based on your vistor's IP address. Only visitors whose computers have a specific address (or belong to a specific range of addresses) are allowed to view your web pages.
.htaccess lines for this are:
Order deny,allow Deny from all Allow from <address>
Note that there is no space between
deny,allow in in the first line!
<address> you can substitute (part of) an internet address, e.g.:
|A visitor with the IP address 22.214.171.124
|All visitors having an IP address containing the combination '131.211'
|All visitors from the domain 'science.uu.nl'
|All visitors from the domain 'uu.nl'
You can combine rules to further restrict or widen access.
As an example, the page on
www.students.science.uu.nl/~f051317/alleenUU/ can be viewed only by visitors from within the UU domain. To this end,
.htaccess contains the rule
Allow from uu.nl